Let’s Learn


Many people think that basketball was invented around 100 years ago, but it has actually been around for 3,000 years! The Olmec, who lived in Central America developed a way to make rubber balls from Latex-producing trees that were in their area. Because this is the first game that used a rubber ball, many anthropologists think that this game set the field for all sports that would eventually use rubber balls!



Have you ever wondered where jerky first originated from?

For centuries, Anishinabek people having been drying strips of meat to make jerky. It was a process that was developed to preserve the meat, so it could be eaten later. Jerky became very popular during the fur trading era because it was lightweight, easy to pack and was filled with nutrition. A person alone could survive on jerky for weeks at a time if he had to. 

Today, we have taken the Anishinabek ways and refined them by adding wood chips and fire to “smoke” our meats, giving them lots of flavor. We no longer need to dry out our meats by means of extending its shelf-life – that’s where freezers and refrigerators come in. However, jerky remains to be a popular snack among many people, like you, and we have the Anishinabek to thank for that!



Waabbagaa Giizis

(Leaves Turning Color Moon)

Have you ever wondered why leaves change their colors in the fall?

Well, before we can answer that question, we first need to know about leaves in general. Leaves take water from the ground and carbon dioxide from the air to create something known as glucose (a type of sugar). The gloucose created acts as a form of food to the leaves, as well as building blocks for growing. In order to make glucose, an action called photosynthesis must take place. Photosynthesis uses the sun to create glucose. A chemcial called chlorophyll must also be present when photosynthesis is taking place — it’s what gives the leaves their green color. 

When Fall and Winter begin setting in, there is not enough light or water for photosynthesis to take place. The leaves rely on the food they’ve stored up over the Summer, and begin shutting down the food making process. Since photosynthesis doesn’t happen, the chlorophyll chemical disappears from the leaves (causing them to lose their bright green color) and viewers begin to see the yellows, oranges and reds of the leaves. The colors we see in the Fall are always in the leaves, we just can’t see them in the Summer because the green-like color of the chlorophyll dominates them.

Monarch Butterfly Celebration

Did you know?

Butterflies represent change, something that all of us deal with at some point in time.

You can look at change as something negative and be afraid of it, or you can look at it like a butterfly, and embrace the beautiful things that are about to come into your life!

During our Monarch Butterfly Celebration here at the Ziibiwing Center, we learn about butterflies, get our faces painted, participate in various activities, and watch the Ceremonial Butterfly Dance. We hope you will join us this Saturday, September 15 from 1-4 pm at the Ziibiwing Center for this wonderful event!


Mother Earth phrases in Ojibwe

Here are some Mother Earth related phrases:

 Changing how it is used – Aanchtoong Ezhi Nokaazang

 Have respect for the little medicines – Mnaadendan Mshkikiinsan

 Respect Mother Earth – Mnaadenim shkakamik kwe

Pick up what is lying around – Maamginan bemaawngdeg

Use less – Noondaash Nokaazan 

Re-use, recycle – Aabwiito Nokaazan

Don’t make the water dirty/pollute – Gegwa wiinaagmitooke nbiish

Don’t waste – Gegwa baabnadke 

 Don’t use uselessly – Gegwa baapnajigeke

Facts about Wild Rice (Manoomin) 

Source: Ziibiwing PowerPoint

  • Wild Rice is a fragile, wild grass plant.  
  • Where in the world does wild rice grow?
    North America. Wild rice grows naturally in lakes and river plain swamps of Minnesota,Wisconsin, and…Michigan!
  • What kind of environment does wild rice need to grow?
    Wild Rice needs moving water to grow, rivers, shallow lakes, and wet lands. 
  • How deep does the water need to be to grow rice?
    Rice needs 6 inches to 3 feet of water to grow. The best depth is 1-2 feet.  
  • How tall does manoomin grow?
    8-12 feet in the water
     Each grain can be up to 2cm long. Wild rice is longer than white or brown rice, which is more commonly seen. 
  • Color:
  • Brownish black 
  • Manoomin is still very important to us today, and is considered a sacred food to the Anishinabe people.

Source: Ziibiwing PowerPoint


How to get started in the ZAAP Program


1: Choose an artifact
2: Complete the adoption form
3: Send in your payment

Get your adoption started today! Determine what level of sponsorship is right for you. Then, complete the three steps above and you will be on your way to becoming the proud new adoptee of an Anishinabe artifact. It really is that easy! Don’t forget birthdays and other special holidays – go ahead and give the gift that keeps giving back. Classrooms are even encouraged to “ZAAP” an artifact. Think of the program as your way of helping out and preserving the Anishinabe artifacts. You will receive an authentic certificate personally signed by the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan’s Chief after the completion of your adoption.

Here is a quick list of artifacts available for adoption:

  • Third Phase Chief’s Blanket
  • Dance Shawl
  • Nampeyo Pottery
  • Flared Lip Olla
  • Powder Horn
  • Logging, Cascade Mountains,Washington
  • Made in the USA Picture
  • Horsehair Flared Vase
  • Black Ash Wastebasket
  • Ojibwe Beaded Bandoleer Bag
  • Ojibwe Beaded Vest
  • Fancy Dancer (sculpture)
  • Untitled (pow wow dancer sculpture)
  • Baby Moccasins
  • Cornhusk Bag

Please call (989) 775-4734 if you have any questions.  Also, stop by the Ziibiwing Center during regular business hours to check out the artifacts available for adoption.

Special thanks go out to our newest sponsors for adopting the following artifacts:

Craig & Marlene Waynee
(Level – Family)


David Begg
(Level – Club/Organization)


Cheryl Weekley gifted 2 ZAAP Adoptions to:

Lexi Weekley Dean
(Level – Children’s)

Miniature Canoe

Kayden Weekley Dean
(Level – Children’s)

Commemorative Isabella County,
Michigan Winchester Rifle





The significance behind the “Native Kids Ride Bikes” Exhibit

Anishnaabensag Biimskowebshkigewag “Native Kids Ride Bikes” is an exhibition that features sevenlowrider bicycles that embody the essence of Anishinabe culture and ideals. 

If you have had the opportunity to visit the exhibit, you have seen the exquisite craftsmanship of the bicycles. But, what most people don’t know is the story behind the bicycles and the exhibit construction. Let’s take an inside look at the creation of the exhibit!

Dr. Dylan AT Miner is a Métis artist originally from the Thumb of Michigan and currently teaches at Michigan State University (MSU). His passion for art and history is helping him direct the Michigan Native Arts Initiative. 

He also is the creative mind behind the “Native Kids Ride Bikes” exhibit currently showing at the ZiibiwingCenter through July 28, 2012. The Changing Exhibit is complimentary with admission to the Diba Jimooyung Permanent Exhibit. (Admission is only $6.50 or less.)

Dylan began working on this collective project so that he could think about Indigenous transportation and its relationship to both traditional and contemporary knowledge. 

Throughout the development of the exhibit, he always knew he wanted to work with urban Native youth and Anishinaabemowin-speaking elders. In fact, he met weekly with Native high school students for four months last spring, as well as with Native middle school children during an intensive summer camp this past June. During these two periods, the groups collaborated to build seven bicycles based on sacred teachings of the Seven Grandfathers.

“When I see the bikes, I think about the hours of work that the youth put into these artworks. I also see the commitment that the elders and young adults have toward the next generation,” he said. 

Surely, after completion of a project of this nature, Dylan feels a fulfilling sense of accomplishment. The “Native Kids Ride Bikes” exhibit took approximately one year to come together, and is now on display for people all over to see. 

And although, he says at times he is sad that this project marks an endpoint for him, he continues to conduct youth workshops building lowrider bikes with Native youth. These workshops enable him to spread the knowledge of Indigenous people and bicycles to future generations.

Prior to starting this project, Dylan worked with Don Lyons (Leech Lake) and Ahz Teeple (Bay Mills) to conduct oral history interviews with Anishinaabeg elders inLansing. Through these interviews, they discovered many interesting things in regards to the Indigenous people and the transportation industry.

What we discovered is that most Anishinaabe came here to work in the automobile factories.  From there, I started to think about connecting sustainable transportation with traditional Métis, Anishinaabeg, and Cree transportation, and the bike just made sense,” Dylan said.      

When it came time to collaborate on the bike designs for this particular exhibit, Dylan and the students worked on incorporating theSeven Grandfather Teachings as their theme.    

“Seven is a sacred number, dealing both with the number of stops on the migration, as well as the number of Grandfather Teachings*. It seemed to make sense to make that number of bikes,” he said.
*(Wisdom, Love, Respect, Bravery, Honesty, Humility, and Truth). 

Due to the significance of the Grandfather Teachings, Native middle and high school students came together to create seven bicycles for this exhibit. The number seven was significant throughout the project, especially in the design of the bikes, which truly can be seen in great detail in the exhibit. 

The youth picked one of the teachings and built a bike around it. I would help advise students, as did Andrew Wildbill (Cayuse) who worked on these,” Dylan said.    

For Dylan, this collective project was not only about the art. As earlier stated, Dylan is both an artist and historian, and so this project allowed him to integrate an educational component as well. And to date, he continues to spread his wealth of knowledge through the “Native Kids Ride Bikes” exhibit.  

We hope you take the opportunity to come check out the Changing Exhibit for yourself!

The Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture & Lifeways is located at 6650 E. Broadway in Mt.Pleasant, Mich. The hours of operation are Monday thru Saturday from 10am – 6pm. If you have any questions about the exhibit, feel free to call us at 1-800-225-8172 or visit our website www.sagchip.org/ziibiwing.



Did you know?
Facts about the Mt. Pleasant Boarding School

  • The Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial School consisted of 37 buildings on 320 acres of land, with an average enrollment of 300 American Indian students per year in grades K-8. 
  • The school operated from 1893-1934. 
  • Students performed work such as laundry, farm work, cleaning, and other manual labor for a majority of the school day. 
  • Almost every moment of the children’s day was structured, documented, and controlled.
  • Students were taught that the teachings and practices of their culture were wrong and even savage.      

Visit our website to download our Boarding School Curriculum guide.
Go to: About us → Media Room → Brochures

Anishnaabensag Biimskowebshkigewag “Native Kids Ride Bikes”

Over the past thirty years, the shift away from industrial labor has left the state’s economy in a dire, if not fatal, situa­tion. With the collapse of the automobile industry, Michigan’s current unemployment is on par with the troubling levels seen for some time in Native America. In Michigan, the relationship between Indigenous people and the automobile industry has a long history. For at least three generations, Anishnaabeg (Ojibwe, Odawa, and Potowatomi) workers have frequently left reservation lands to work as wage laborers in the automobile industry in the region’s largest cities, particularly Detroit, Grand Rapids, Lansing, Flint, Milwaukee, Chicago, and Toronto. As such, many urban Native youth in these metropolitan areas are the children and grandchildren of former autoworkers. This project explores local history by interrogating the relationship between sustainable transportation and contemporary Indigenous culture.

 Source:  Prof. Dylan AT Miner–Nkwejong, Anishnaabewaki (Lansing, Michigan)


Did you know that the ornaments hanging on the Ziibiwing Center’s Christmas tree in the lobby were all made by students at the Saginaw Chippewa Academy? Every ornament is unique in its own way and holds special characteristics of every student that made them. If you have seen the tree you will notice all kinds of beautiful ornaments. Some students made them from birchbark while others made them with beads. My favorite ornaments however, are the glass bulbs. The students were able to put pieces of nature inside the glass bulbs and then design a picture on the outside. They could even wrap it if they chose. Come into the Ziibiwing Gift Shop and buy some crafts to create your very own ornament from home. Show your family how creative you can be!





Grandfather Teachings


In order for our generation to understand their responsibilities and gain direction and balance through life, elders passed down seven teachings. Each one of these teachings provided us a gift of knowledge and understanding on how to take care of our Mother Earth and community.

The photo in the “Let’s Play” section of this blog is a representation of the sixth gift. It teaches us to know that we are equal to everyone. We are no better or no less.

Each of these seven teachings must be used together, because you cannot have one without the other. Venture over to “Let’s Play” and see if you can guess which teaching this entry represents. Make sure to check back next week for the answer!

Seven Prophecies

 Long before light-skinned people arrived, prophets visited the Anishinabek. They spoke to our ancestors and provided them with 7 prophecies. They told them to heed these predictions, learn from them, and pass them down to the next generations.

Below is a passage from the second prophecy. Please read it carefully and comment back on what it means to you.

“The prophets foresaw that the Anishinabek would become lost and so would their spiritual strength. The people would camp by a large body of water and a boy would be born to help them find their way.”


Giving thanks in Anishinabemowin!

With Thanksgiving coming up, let’s learn how to give thanks in Anishinabemowin! Below are a few phrases for saying thank you to our Creator.

Thank you Creator for this day: Miigwetch gzhemindoo Giibigiizhigak

Thank you for all the good things on this earth to sustain me: Miigwetch kina gegoo enishing maapii enaadamaagiyaanh

Thank you for our children and for our elders who still carry our traditional knowledge: Miigwetch kina binoojiinyag miinwa kina Chi-nishinaabeg Anishinaabe-maadiziwin bemwidoojig

Thank you for the water, plants & animals and Mother Earth: Miigwetch maanda nibiish, kina wesiinyag, miinwa ezaak’kiig

Thank you for those who traveled here from afar and made it here safely and thank you for keeping them safe: Miigwech geg waasa gaa-bi-jibaajig, weweni gii-bi-digoshinoowad, miigwech weweni gii-ganenmadoowa

We ask that you keep them safe when they travel: Ndoo-kwedwemi weweni wii-ganendmigaasoowad ni-gaa-giiwewad


The History of Spirit Feast

The Spirit Feast event has been celebrated every year at the Ziibiwing Center since 1998. Due to the Mount Pleasant Indian Boarding School, our community has experienced a loss of cultural knowledge. The feast now stands as a revitalization of the cultural knowledge of the Anishinabe people.

Many other tribes, such as the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, take part in this and have been since the 1940’s. This event is a night for those in the physical realm to honor the memories of their ancestors and loved ones who have crossed through the Western Door and into the spiritual realm. The Odawa Indians would refer to this as Ghost Suppers.  

In the beginning, this event would consist of two families cooking a large supper and inviting Indian members of the community to their homes. They would go from house to house to share memories, photos, and eat food. Most would make a favorite dish of those that have passed before us.

It was common that after the last guest had been served, the remaining food would either be left until midnight or morning for the spirits enjoyment. It is also known that some would make their favorite dish and burn it in the fire. As the fire was consuming the food the spirits could come and eat.

Today, not much of the tradition has changed. The Chippewa hosts Spirit Feasts much like the Odawa Indians hold Ghost Suppers. The Ziibiwing Center event is open to the public, and all participants are encouraged to bring a dish to pass. You will have an opportunity to make a small spirit dish as an offering.

We hold this event to help with the healing process for those in the physical realm and to give the spirits of our ancestors and loved ones a sense of peace. This is a reminder of the circle of life and the connection we have to the past, and future generations.

The answer to last weeks “Let’s Play” is : Aakodewin (Bravery)



Seven Teachings

In order for our generation to understand their responsibilities and gain direction and balance through life, elders passed down seven teachings. Each one of these teachings provided us a gift of knowledge and understanding on how to take care of our Mother Earth and community.

The photo in the “Let’s Play” section of this blog is a representation of the fourth gift. It provides us with the courage to do things even in the most difficult times.

Each of these seven teachings must be used together, because you cannot have one without the other. Venture over to “Let’s Play” and see if you can guess which teaching this entry represents. Make sure to check back next week for the answer!


 Eagle Feathers Honored

The history of our ancestor’s eagle feathers is not something that is passed around carelessly. Only through the word of our elders can we gain a full understanding of what these feathers mean and preserve the credibility of their story. 

In the next few weeks Honoring the Spirit of the Eagle events will be taking place at theZiibiwingCenter. Not only will these events give you the opportunity to have a full understanding of what the eagle feathers mean to the Anishinabek, but you will get to take part in the cleansing and honoring of these feathers.

Following is a brief explanation of what happens during the cleansing process: all of the eagle feathers are first removed from their storage containers and laid out on the tables. The feathers are smudged with sage and each one is then cleaned with cedar.

On the final day of the events everyone feasts with the feathers to honor them one last time before the event takes place again the following year. The Ogitchedaw Veterans & Warriors Society and theZiibiwingCenterplan to have this event annually for years to come giving people of all ages, young and old, the opportunity to honor, cleanse, and feast with these important symbols.  


Basketry and Weaving

Kelly Church will be visiting the ZiibiwingCenteron Saturday, October 22. She will be presenting about the Great Lakes Fibers used in basketry and weaving. Even though this process is known throughout the world, it was the Anishinabek who truly made it an art. Our people knew how to make these baskets beautiful while keeping them durable and functional. The baskets/and woven fibers could be used as water containers, cooking pots, and floor mats, and more.

In order to capture the beauty in the colors and textures of these basket materials such as: cattails, sweet grass, feathers, agave, and various types of wood were used. They were then dyed with plant pigments and ash to create the colors. After perfecting this style of basket weaving, the baskets eventually became a source of income for the weaver. Today, finding a traditional hand-made basket woven by an American Indians is truly a great treasure. 

 Check out the ZiibiwingCenter’s blog for more information on the Great Lakes Fibers used in basketry and weaving” presentation by Kelly Church.


Pkwaakodekedaa, “Let’s Play Ball!”

American sports are one of our nation’s biggest pastimes. Baseball is heading into the playoffs, football season just started and hockey season is right around the corner! It is all about the “Now”. Who’s going to win the World Series this year? Will the Detroit Tigers win another World Series? Many don’t know that the sports we love have been around for thousands of years.

All the sports that we know today have developed from our ancestors. The rules of the game evolved as different languages, materials, and landscapes became available. The Ojibwe people played games such as Lacrosse, Shinny (Hockey), and Basketball long ago. According to Robert Stewart Culin, an ethnographer and author interested in games, art and dress, these sports are steeped in tradition and intimately related to all phases of life, especially to ceremony, ritual, magic, and religion.

Baseball is still one of the top All-American sports today. It makes you wonder how baseball originated, doesn’t it. Was it just a guy with a stick and a rock?

No matter where baseball started, we are all getting a chance to play it this Saturday, September 24 from 11am-4pm at the Let’s Play Ball event! Challenge your brain with some of these Anishinabemowin baseball words and phrases and impress the crowd with how much you have learned.

Thing you will see:

Ambes (ag)-Baseball Base

Apagijigewinini (wag)-Pitcher (s)

Bagamibatoowin-Home Run

Bakitejii’igannaak (oon)-Baseball bat

Bakitejii’igewgwiigzens(ag)-Boy baseball player(s)

Bakitejii`igewin (an)-Baseball (s)

Bakitejii`igewinini (wag)-Male baseball Player (s)

Bakitejii’ige wkwe (wag)-Female Baseball Player (s)

Bakitejii’igewkwezens(ag)-Girl baseball player(s)

Bikwaakwad (oon)-Ball (s)

Bikwaakwadokewin (an)-Ball Game (s)


Debaabandang (ig)-Umpire (s)

Ishkwaawaaji Gibichiiwin-Third Base

Nitaam Gibichiiwin-First Base

Nisawi Gibichiiwin-Second Base

Phrases to say:             

APagidoon-Throw it!  You say, “Pagidoon”

Azhegiiwen!-Return to base, go back!  You say, “Zhegiiwen”

Bagamibatoon!  Run home!  Run to home base!

Bakitejii`ige-He/She plays baseball.

Bakite’an! Hit it! Enigok bakite’an!-Hit it hard!

Gizhiibatoon!-Run Fast!

Gimoojibatoon!-Steal the base! Run secretly!



Gnaajitoon-You are good at it!

Gnitaa pkwaakodade.-You are good at playing ball. 

Giwenda-na’ibidoon- You made a nice catch. 

Gii-piindigebatoo-He got on base/He is safe.

Gaachididan! Catch it!

Ishkwaawaaji Gibichiiwin apatoon!-Run to third base!

K’nitaa –pkwaakodade/gaachididan or nkwebidoon/pagidoon/bakitejii’ ige Good at baseball /Good catch or good catch/ Good throw/Good hit

Nisawi gibichiiwin apatoon!-Run to second base!

Nitaam gibichiiwin apatoon! –Run to first base!

Nkwebidoon!-Catch it!

Nkwebidoon iw pikwaakwad!-Catch the ball!

Weweni pagidoon pikwaakwad.-Throw the ball well/accurately.

Wewiip pagadoon! Hurry up and throw!

Zhaabwii! Fair Ball or He’s safe!

Zhooshkoboozin!  Slide

Monarch Butterfly Celebration!

 The Monarch Butterfly Celebration started five years ago as a way to bring the Mount Pleasantand Tribal communities together. Throughout the years this event has become a building utensil for the Tribal community. Families have gathered to watch the historical Fancy Shawl dances and to participate in the craft activities provided. Any Fancy Shawl dancer is welcome to join in at the 1pm performance. In the past and again this coming weekend, special guests have been brought in to show displays of butterflies and other insects. Throughout the event door prizes are given away and due to the recent pass of Grandparents day, a 10% off coupon for the gift shop is being provided for elders (60+). Please enjoy the pictures and get ready for the ZiibiwingCenter’s 5th Annual Monarch Butterfly Celebration, taking place this Saturday, September 17 from 1-4pm.



































ZC’s Photography Club


The ZC’s Photography Club originated and has grown over the past year. Two ZC employees, Chuck Butzinand Esther Helms, are the co-creators of the club. They had the idea in mind that they just wanted to have fun. They opened the group to the Native community for anyone else who shared the same passion for photography. All ages, all experience levels, and even those who don’t own a camera are welcome to join.

 The hope for this program is to show, through their own eyes, Native life for those unfamiliar with this culture. Group meetings vary from informational sessions, to workshops, to field trips, and yes food is even involved. Many of the workshops are lead by Chuck – he teaches a variety of different topics such as night photography, liquid light, and even PhotoShop. However, this program is unique in its own way. Those who are well experienced in photography are encouraged to teach their own workshops on their topic of choice. 


 From the success of this program, the Ziibiwing Center created the Changing Exhibit, Indigital: Reflections of a Tribal Community. Only members of the Photography club were allowed to submit their photos into the exhibit design team for review. The exhibit not only gave club members the opportunity to have their photos and work publicly viewed, but Indigital photos were developed into a published book. 


 The Photography club doesn’t just exist for those who want a great hobby but is also to encourage those who want to make a career out of it. The club meets the second Monday of every month from 6 – 7:30pm. “Witnessing something amazing can come and go in a split second, but take a picture of it and that something amazing will then last forever.”  



Anishinabe Performance Circle Dances

 There are 6 different traditional dances that will be taught during theAnishinabe Performance Circleclasses: Men’s Traditional, Women’s Traditional, Men’s Grass, Women’s Jingle Dress, Men’s Fancy Feather, and Women’s Fancy Shawl.

Men’s Traditional is the oldest form of dance for the men. Many say the men’s traditional dance tells the story of Creation and how all things on Mother Earth were identified and given names. Other styles of men’s traditional dance tell stories of combat and hunting. 

Women’s Traditional is the oldest form of dance for women. The dancers’ feet never leave the Earth. This form of dance honors the connection women share with mother Earth.  Women traditional dancers are the “backbone of our nation.”

 Long ago, Men’s Grass Dance Societies were very important toWoodlandand Plains tribes. Men who belonged to these societies were responsible for preparing a ceremonial clearing through dance. Our men still perform this dance today. The regalia of a Grass Dancer represent the movement of blowing grass. 

 Women’s Jingle Dress style of dance was born from a young Ojibwe woman’s dream to heal her people.  Traditionally, 365 tin or copper cones are secured on the dress representing each day of the year. Each cone is filled with a prayer, and as the cones “dance” the prayers are released.

 Men’s Fancy Feather is known for its stamina, high jumps, spins, and fancy footwork. The dancers literally amaze and excite the audiences. This form of dance was born in the early 20th Century. Their regalia includes of two distinct, multi-colored feather bustles that are worn around the neck and waist.

Women’s Fancy Shawl is sometimes called the “Butterfly Dance,” these women dancers wear brightly colored shawls around their shoulders. The Women’s Fancy Shawl or Butterfly Dance began in the mid 20th Century. Intricate beadwork and dresses match the shawls creating beauty in motion as these dancers perform dazzling footwork and spins.


Boarding School Curriculum


During the years 1893-1934 the United States Congress established theMount PleasantIndianIndustrialBoarding School. This was to fulfill part of the 1855 Treaty with the Anishinabek. Lands were taken and in exchange the government officials promised to provide an education for all American Indian children. This treaty then became the foundation for the 1934 Comstock Act legislation, now known as the Michigan Indian Tuition Waiver that pays for the college education that American Indians inMichiganreceive today. TheMt.Pleasantboarding school consisted of 37 buildings on 320 acres of land with an enrollment rate of about 300 American Indian students per year (Grades K-8.)


 Throughout history, many American Indian boarding schools, including theMt.PleasantSchool, followed the same curriculum. The children’s day consisted mainly of manual labor with little academic instruction at the end of the day. These chores would consist of laundry, farm work, and cleaning. Every moment of the children’s day was documented, controlled, and structured including their religious worship or prayer. When their lessons commenced the children were being taught false stories about their heritage, such as their culture being incorrect and/or even “savage” and that their native tongue was the language of the devil.


 These wrong doings took place over 50 years ago. Today, we should all be thankful for the school systems that provide us with professional teachers and a quality education.


Bio-Mr. Mishiike

Our local resident turtle will help us celebrate our culture with all who visit. He is available for teaching, story telling, and he is very photogenic.

Mr. Mishiike is of the Turtle Clan from the Isabella Reservation. He loves to teach Anishinabemowin (our language) and Anishinabe culture to little children. He is a traditional dancer in the Pow Wow circuit, but he prefers telling stories to his little turtles.

We at the Ziibiwing Center welcome him as the newest addition to the Ziibiwing Family. Look for Mr. Mishiike at future Ziibiwing and Tribal events.


Learn more about our Thursday’s Performers

Kelly Jackson:

The vocalist, Kelly Jackson, is an Ojibwe woman and a member of the Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians. Her songs reflect her appreciation for history and culture, but also commemorate the many contributions women offer their families, communities, and professions. Kelly is working on releasing her debut album, “Spirit of a Woman.” Her style reflects a diverse range of influence from native traditional music blended with the contemporary genres of blues, jazz, and folk.

Mawla Shawana:

The vocalist, Mawla Shawana, is an Odawa & Potawatomi Anishinabe from Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reservation (located on Manitoulin Island in Ontario, Canada.)

 Don Burnstick:

Don Burnstick is a Cree from the Alexander First Nation located outside of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Growing up, Don was an alcoholic and drug addict. However, in 1985 at the age of 21, he turned his life around by choosing to live his life free of drugs and alcohol. After having obtained his post secondary training at the University of San Diego in holistic urban youth development, Don spent 20 years involved within the healing/personal wellness movement. He utilizes humor and performance to provide a holistic approach to healing and has established himself as one of Canada’s best comedians of all time. 



Car Bingo History

Indian Car Bingo has been a part of NativeFest since its inaugural year in 2006, but it has been a part of Saginaw Chippewa Indian life for much longer.

In the 1960s, a social group known as the Tomah Club would play organized Car Bingo on the Isabella County Reservation as a fundraiser. Winners would honk their horns if they had a bingo.

Tribes across the state and the country adopted similar games and soon Car Bingo became a popular way to gamble. Car Bingo became the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe’s first gambling operation in 1972 and led to the opening of the Soaring Eagle Casino & Resort.

The Ziibiwing Center and Exclusive Sponsor, PNC Bank, will celebrate the history of Indian Car Bingo on Wednesday, August 3 from 6-9pm. The tradition, which was started almost forty years ago, will fill the Ziibiwing Center parking lot and once again help raise money for a good cause.

Help support the Ziibiwing Center’s educational and cultural programming and have a chance to win many prizes, including the $1,000 Gift Card Cover-All Grand Prize!


NativeFest History

Q&A with Ziibiwing Center’s Director, Shannon Martin

Q. Who first came up with the idea for NativeFest?
A. It was a full Ziibiwing staff vision for NativeFest. We wanted to provide a culturally-relevant, fun, and contemporary 3-day event for the community that led up to the Saginaw Chippewa’s annual pow wow.
Q. How did it get started-how long was the process?
A. In July 2005, Ziibiwing presented an American Indian Music Festival on the front lawn. It was well attended, however we felt that it would be more widely enjoyed if we presented it near the pow wow. Many Saginaw Chippewa Tribal Members travel back to the rez for the big pow wow weekend. The team decided to brainstorm some other fun events to complement the idea of a music festival. Car Bingo was the first idea we generated, and from that we re-invented the music festival to become a Music & Comedy Night. We added a third day of programming that spotlights rare and beautiful artifacts from the Permanent Collection. The Cultural Resource Management team develops a special Collection Showing hosted by Ziibiwing’s curator to wrap up NativeFest.
Q. Why was Car Bingo chosen as an activity?
A. The idea of Car Bingo was fully embraced by the entire team. This event ideally satisfies three very important components of Ziibiwing’s work. Car Bingo allows us to inform the community about the history of Saginaw Chippewa gaming, it provides a fun, interactive, and unique opportunity to play bingo, and it is a fundraiser. The revenues generated from Car Bingo directly support other Ziibiwing initiatives such as historic preservation, language revitalization, and cultural perpetuation.
Q. What year was the first NativeFest?
A. The first NativeFest was held in 2006.
Q. What things have been added to NativeFest over the years?
A. Our most notable addition to NativeFest came in the form of corporate sponsorship in 2008. Today we are proud to present NativeFest with the generous sponsorship from our friends at PNC. Their kind sponsorship provides all of the funding needed to implement the 3-day event. With the PNC sponsorship, we were able to offer more activities during Music & Comedy Night. Kids’ sports bouncers, face painting, sand pools, balloon animals, food, and refreshments are all provided to the community free of charge.
Q. What is the largest attendance number that has attended a NativeFest event?
A. 2010 attracted the largest number of NativeFest attendees. Ziibiwing hosted well over 1,000 people during the 3-day event.

What is Cel Painting?

Cel Painting is a style of art that is commonly used to make traditional animation cartoons. The process includes painting an image on clear plastic material known as celluloid acetate (or a “cel” for short). In traditional cartooning each cel represents one frame and there are 24 frames per second!

Here are 3 easy steps to get your cel painting on its way:

  1. Draw your image on a regular piece of paper.
  2. Place the cel over the original drawing and trace the lines with a marker or paint pen.
  3. Flip the cel over and begin painting on the back side. Start with smaller details like the eyes, nose, and mouth and work your way up to the larger sections.

For more information about cel painting ans style, register today for the Ziibiwing Center’s Artist-in-Residence Mentoring Program: Classic Animation Cel Painting featuring Woodland Imagery with Dawn Jackson. Program begins July 18 and participants must be registered in advance.

Call (989) 775-4744 to register today!


Did you know?

Six Nations Confederacy:

  • Is also known as the Iroquois Confederacy
  • Originally there were only 5 Nations- Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayungas, and Senecas. The sixth nation, the Tuscaroras, migrated to the Iroquois country in the 18th century
  • Comprised the oldest living participatory democracy on earth
  • Their democracy inspired Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson
  • Was formed by the Huron prophet, Deganawidah, also known as the “Peacemaker”
  • Peace between the nations was maintained through the Haudenosaunees’s Great Law of Peace, which was passed from generation to generation by the use of wampum.

Source: “Wow! I Didn’t know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World” –Ziibiwing Center


 On June 25 at the Indigital Photographers’ Panel, Ziibiwing Center’s Esther Mays-Helms discussed modern-day American Indian photographers. Zig Jackson was one of the artists she talked about. Let’s Learn a little more about Zig Jackson…

Bio – Zig Jackson, American Indian Photographer

 Descendent of Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa tribes

Credentials: Master of Fine Arts from San Francisco Art Institute, recipient of Wallace Alexander Gerbode Foundation Grant, artist-in-residence at the Headlands Center for the arts, Sausalito, and featured in Aperture and Photo Metro publications.

Zig is a San Francisco-based photographer known for his satirical look at American Indians in photography. He has taught photography classes at the University of California Davis, San Francisco State University, and the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, N.M.

Notable Collections:

  • “Indian Photographing Tourist Photographing Indian” – Zig photographs tourists taking pictures of Indians
  • “Indian Photographing Tourist Photographing Sacred Sites” – Zig photographs tourists taking pictures of Indian homelands
  • “Indian Man in San Francisco” – Zig photographs himself at sites in San Francisco wearing a traditional headdress
  • “Entering Zig’s Indian Reservation” – Zig reclaims San Francisco as Indian Land


Learning Ojibwe: Photography

Fill in the missing letters in the words to learn the Ojibwe version of Photography related words below:

Word Bank: enhnaandek, anishinaabekkaa, mazinaakide, waaskonetchigan, mazinichigan, mazintchgan

Photographed: _ a _ _ _ a _ _ _ d _

          Camera: m_ _ _ n _ _ _ _ _ n

          People: _ _ i _ _ _ _ a _ _ _ _ _ _ a               

Light: _ a _ _ _ _ n _ _ _ _ _ g _ _

          Color: e _ _ _ a _ _ _ _ _ _

          Image: _ _ z _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _

Click here to check your answers!

Source: A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe


The Three Sister – Anishinabe Feast Foods

Traditionally, the Three  Sisters (corn, beans, and squash) garden has been planted by American Indian gardeners in many different parts of North America. The Three Sisters garden forms an ecosystem by creating a community of plants and animals. Each plant helps the other grow and is a form of companion planting.

Corn (Mandamin)
  • Produces starch to make energy
  • Can provide 75% of the human body’s food needs
  • No labor required after planting seed
Beans (Mashkodesimin)
  • High amounts of protein & essential vitamins
  • Can be stored for a long period of time
Squash (Kosimaan)
  • Chokes weeds & keeps ground moist
  • High in Vitamin C

Early this month, First Lady Michelle Obama planted the Three Sisters in the White House kitchen garden. The planting is intertwined with the launch of the Let’s Move! In Indian Country initiative to push the message of leading active and healthy lifestyles. For more information visit: www.letsmove.gov/indiancountry

Sources: North American Indian, By: David Murdoch, 1995 and “Echo Hawk Applauds First Lady’s Planting of the Three Sisters in the White House Garden,” Nedra Darling, 2011


Learning Ojibwe:

 Match the English word to the same word in Ojibwe:

                        Father                                      nimaamaa        

                        Mother                                     niijikiwenh

                        Sister                                        nikan

                        Brother                                    imbaabaa

                        Bone                                        wiiyagasenh

                        Dirt                                          nimisenh

Answers to Word Match

Source: A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe


Did You Know About the Mt. Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School?

To fulfill part of the 1855 Treaty with the Anishinabek in Michigan, the United States Congress established the Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School. Anishinabe Three Fires Confederacy lands were taken, and in exchange government officials promised to provide an education to all American Indian children. The 1855 Treaty became the basis for the 1934 Comstock Act legislation which pays for the college education of American Indians in Michigan. Today it is known as the Michigan Indian Tuition Waiver.

Source: “American Indian Boarding Schools: An Exploration of Global Ethnic & Cultural Cleansing”

For more information about American Indian Boarding Schools and the Mt. Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School visit the Ziibiwing Center website to download our free supplementary curriculum guide!



History of Anishinabek Creations:

Egonaadjiwong Gii Zhichigaademigak Pii Gii Migichi Zanagak Bimaadiziwin

“Creating Beautiful Things in Difficult Times”

The Anishinabek have been creating beautiful pieces of art since their formation. They design clothing, blankets, bandolier bags, baskets, and even ceremonial objects. Many of these objects use intricate decorative beading. The Anishinabek create these objects to portray the natural world and the wonders of Creation. Yet, these creations are more than just art, they symbolize and affirm that the people overcame tremendous adversity and still create objects of beauty.  

Learning Ojibwe:

Fill in the missing letters to complete the Ojibwe word.

Word bank:                                                                                                                           giizheninjige, biizikiigan, mashkimond, manidoominens, inaadiziwin

1. Bead: _ _ _ i _ _ _ m _ _ _ n _

2. Bag: m _ _ _ _ _ i _ o _ _

3. Create: _ _ _ _ h _ _ _ _ n _ _ g _

4. Nature: i _ _ _ _ i _ _ _ _ n

5. Clothing: _ _ _ _ _ k _ _ g _ _

Let’s Learn Answers

Source:  ZiibiwingCenter’s Diba Jimooyung permanent exhibit


Coming up soon is the ZiibiwingCenter’s 7th Birthday! In this activity, find the answers to the questions about theZiibiwingCenter in older blog posts to learn about events and things that have gone on in its history. The month containing the answer is listed in parentheses.

  1. What year was theZiibiwingCenteropened? (January 2009)
  2. What ages can participate in thePerformance Circle? (March 2011)
  3. What day did Indigital: Reflections of a Tribal Community open? (March 2011)
  4. Who taught the Fiber Arts: Black Ash Baskets and Birchbark bitings workshop? (February 2011)
  5. What unique collection showing was shown in November 2010?
  6. What is theZiibiwingCenter’s mission? (August 2010)
  7. What was special about the bingo played at NativeFest 2010? (July 2010)
  8. What are the Seven Grandfather Teachings? (July 2010)
  9. How many copper cones are used in a woman’s jingle dress? (July 2010)
  10. What does Anishinabe mean? (March 2010)
  11. What is the importance of the clan system? (October 2009)
  12. What television show made a specially designed motorcycle for the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan? (October 2009)
  13. What insect had its own day celebrated at theZiibiwingCenter? (September 2009)
  14. What day did www.nativedirect.com open? (July 2009)
  15. What story reminds us to look for the beauty within and that we are equal to others? (June 2009)
  16. What workshop did Catherine Nagy Mowry teach as part of the 2009 Artist-in-Residence Mentoring Program? (June 2009)
  17. What is the old saying about the time put into making a birchbark biting? (May 2009)

Answers to Let’s Learn


Wild Ricing


(19th Century tribal women harvesting wild rice in the traditional manner. <BRFrom The American Aboriginal Portfolio, by Mrs. Mary H. Eastman. Illustrated by S. Eastman.Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co. 1853. Source: www.teenwitch.com/plants/poaceae/wildrice.html.)

Wild rice (manoomin) is a plant that takes very special conditions to grow and is very sensitive to its environmental surroundings. Wild rice grows as a reed about 8-12 feet tall in marshy water that is about 3-8 feet deep. However, there are thousands of types of wild rice and each has its own special water depth, temperature, mud, and water quality that it prefers.

Manoomin gets ripe in late summer (mid-August-September) and is harvested in the fall. Harvesting was done using canoes with a man sitting in back and a woman sitting in front facing backward. Since the rice was too dense to paddle through, the man would push the canoe forward with a long stick, usually 10-16 feet long, off of the roots of the rice stalks. As the man moved the canoe, the woman would pull bunches of rice into the canoe with a three-foot-long cedar stick and then use another shorter stick to knock the rice into the bottom of the canoe off of the stalk. Upon returning to shore, the rice was moved into wooden containers for storage.

Source: http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/icw-36.html 

For the story of manoomin according to the Anishinabek, visit this archive of our blog: https://ziibiwing.wordpress.com/2009/09/30/the-story-of-manoomin-wild-rice/ 



Coming soon is Mother Earth Week at the Ziibiwing Center. This week reminds people how important it is to take care of the earth and the environment in which we live. One important part of taking care of the earth is recycling. This means reducing, reusing, and recycling materials that we use. Even though it can be very easy to recycle, many people still do not make the effort. Check out these facts on recycling to learn more about its impact:

  • To produce each week’s Sunday newspapers, 500,000 trees must be cut down.
  • A used aluminum can is recycled and back on the grocery shelf as a new can, in as little as 60 days.
  • Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours — or the equivalent of a half a gallon of gasoline.
  • There is no limit to the amount of times an aluminum can be recycled.
  • A single quart of motor oil, if disposed of improperly, can contaminate up to 2,000,000 gallons of fresh water.
  • On average, each one of us produces 4.4 pounds of solid waste each day. This adds up to almost a ton of trash per person, per year.
  • The U.S. is the #1 trash-producing country in the world at 1,609 pounds per person per year. This means that 5% of the world’s people generate 40% of the world’s waste.
  • A modern glass bottle would take 4,000 years or more to decompose — and even longer if it’s in the landfill.
  • Americans use 2,500,000 plastic bottles every hour.
  • Plastic bags and other plastic garbage thrown into the ocean can kill as many as 1,000,000 sea creatures every year.
  • Americans throw away 25,000,000,000 styrofoam coffee cups every year.
  • Approximately 1 billion trees worth of paper are thrown away every year in the U.S.

Source: http://www.recycling-revolution.com/recycling-facts.html



            Weaving is the art of creating textiles from fibers. The fibers that are used are commonly found in nature and include things such as cotton, wool, animal fur, and even the leaves of the Yucca plant. It is a culturally rich process that has its beginnings among the indigenous people of South America.

            Early weavers of the Americas used different techniques to weave their textiles. Textiles could be woven by hand or they could be woven on looms of varying sizes. As the years progressed, so did the weaving techniques. The styles of looms also multiplied as the decades passed.

            Every American Indian nation contributed greatly to the art of weaving. The Navajo people are revered world wide for their beautiful wool rugs that are woven on a loom by hand. They are still made in a style traditional to Mexico and the Southwest United States. The rugs are created by kneeling in front of a vertical loom and using a tool called a shuttle to weave the threads together. These rugs take hundreds of hours and sell for thousands of dollars.

            Weaving is a true gift from the American Indians to the world. Everyday materials such as gauze, twill, and brocade are all inventions of the Mayan people. Many of today’s popular techniques such as tie-dye, batik, and knitting all stem from the indigenous process of weaving.

 Sources: 1) “Wow! I Didn’t know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World”

2) http://www.native-languages.org/rugs.htm  


The Medicine Wheel 

The medicine wheel is a model which conveys the philosophy, values, and world view of Anishinabek people. The origins of the medicine wheel model are not known, but it has been accepted as a teaching tool by nearly every tribe in North America. From tribe to tribe there may be slight variations in the arrangements of colors, animals, and elements. However, the teachings making up the entire circle are universal. Through this model we seek a relationship of balance within ourselves and with all of creation. The cyclical patterns of the medicine wheel mirror the patterns of the natural world. The medicine wheel teaches us to see all gifts as balance of the whole. Listed below are some of the characteristics of the medicine wheel in the Anishinabek culture

 East (Waabanog)

East is the place of new beginnings. This includes spring, babies, seeds, sunrise, morning, growth, innocence, purity, and vulnerability. 

South (Zhaawanong)

South is the place of the heart, generosity, and honesty. This includes summer, youth, motherhood, marriage, survival, nourishment, community, and loyalty. 

West (Epingishimook)

West is the place of the adult. This includes fall, internal strength, teaching, sharing, visions, bravery, leadership, power, and sacrifice. 

North (Giiwedinong)

North is the place of the elder. This includes winter, wholeness, logic, moderation, night, cleansing, intuition, and sense of the whole.

Source: “Wow! I Didn’t know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World” – Ziibiwing Center



March 5 was the grand opening of Ziibiwing Center’s new changing exhibit, Indigital: Reflections of a Tribal Community. This exhibit features many different candid and staged photographs of people, nature, and other subjects.

Photography is known as the art of capturing light. Light is what is recorded when a picture is taken. Although many pictures now are recorded digitally, the original form of recording light was on film.

While both of these types of photography are used today, one aspect that really differentiates them is in the editing process. Digital photographs have the ability of being easily manipulated via computers, whereas editing photographs taken on film often involves more planning throughout the process of taking and developing the picture.

To check out some great examples of photography, come in and explore Indigital: Reflections of a Tribal Community. 


Let’s practice our numbers in Ojibwe! Fill in the blanks next to each number with the Ojibwe word. Some letters have been filled in as guides.

1 __ E __ __ __ __

2 __ __ __ S __

3 __ __ S __ __

4 __ I  __ __ __ __ __

5 __ __ __ __ __ A __

6 __ __ __ O __ __ __ __ __ __ __

7 __ __ __ __ H __ __ __ __ __

8 __ __ __ __ W __ __ __ __ __

9 __ __ __ A __ __ __ __ __

10 __ __ __ __ __ S __ __

zhaangswi              niswi   

nishwaaswi            naanwan  

nigodwaaswi          niish   

niiwiin                    bezhik 

niizhwaswi             midaaswi


 History of Pottery  

The art of making pottery dates back to 3000 B.C. Pottery is formed from clay and is made into ceramics after the process of firing. During firing, the clay is solidified so that it will not absorb or leak water. The process of shaping and firing clay was solely an American Indian invention. These early potters used coiling, molding, and modeling to construct the pottery. Pottery was made into things for everyday use, such as plates, bowls, jars, toys, and musical instruments. As time passed on, the ceramics were sold in marketplaces as a means of income.  

 Source: “Wow! I Didn’t Know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World” Exhibit  


Let’s learn about some

historic wintertime sports!

There are many different historic wintertime sports and games special to American Indians. Most of the games are reflections of games that are still played today, but they may have slight alterations. A couple of these popular games were “Shinny” and “Snow Snake.”

·         “Shinny,” a game that would be the modern equivalent of field or ice hockey, is one example of a wintertime sport. It was played by both men and women, but more so by women. The object of the game was to drive a ball past the opponents and through their goal. Shinny sticks were two to four feet in length with an end that was curved, widened, and flattened. The ball would vary from the size of a golf ball to a little larger than a baseball. The game would usually start by digging a hole and placing the ball into it and having two opponents dig it out. The strategy was to hit the ball into the air for as great a distance as possible whereas today’s ball sports are more focused on ball control and handling.

·         “Snow Snake” was another popular winter sport. It involved sliding or tossing a pole, or “snake,” a great distance along a frozen path. Teams of two to six players would gather and a cumulative score would be given for the distance each person threw their snake. The name of the game came from the shape of the pole. It was usually six to eight feet long with one end enlarged and curved giving the appearance of a snake. The trails the snakes were thrown on were long, straight, and unobstructed to ensure the snake would travel in a predictable direction.

 Source: “Wow! I Didn’t know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World” Ziibiwing Exhibit 



The process of basket weaving developed independently throughout many areas of the world. The Anishinabe, however, are credited for taking basket weaving to a genuine art form. The designs of their baskets were very carefully detailed; requiring superior craftsmanship, yet the end product was suitable for everyday use. They were beautiful works of art, yet durable enough to be used as cooking pots, water containers, and floor mats.
Cattails, sweet grass, feathers, agave, and various types of woods, such as black ash, are just a few of the materials used to create baskets. Materials were naturally dyed to beautify the baskets by using plant pigments and ash to create many different colors.
Basket making eventually became a way of providing income for the weaver. In this community, there was a time when making and selling black ash baskets was the only source of income for our people. Today, baskets that are handmade by American Indian people are collector’s items that can sell for substantial amounts of money.

Source: “Wow! I Didn’t Know That: Anishinabek Gifts to the World” –Ziibiwing Exhibit


Let’s Learn: American State Names

This week’s Let’s Learn is about all the American state names that come from American Indian languages. Check out how some of the state’s meanings are based on characteristics found there, while some are a little less obvious in their naming. For example, Michigan was named after of one of its characteristics.Michigan: Mshigem or Misigami, are the American Indian names for Lake Michigan in the Potawatomi and Ojibwe languages. Both names mean “great lake.”For the complete listing, be sure to check out: 



Hunting and Gathering Internet Exercise

Build and assess your cultural competency – enhancing your understanding of American Indians will help you recognize and control your personal biases thus incresasing your ability to interact more effectively with American Indian colleagues and customers. Click the link below to access the exercise.

Hunting & Gathering Internet Exercise


Hey Kids! Check out our September ZC Kids Newsletter for upcoming events at the Ziibiwing Center and some back to school games. Enjoy! Kids Letter Volume 2 issue 2

Hey Parents! If you have a child 12 and under and would like to sign them up for the ZC Kids Club ~Please email (sgriffin@sagchip.org) us your contact information and they will be added to our membership. The next newsletter will go out in June 2011. Thanks!

Clothing and Accessories Activity: For this week’s “Let’s Learn” activity we decided to make a word matching puzzle to teach you some clothing and accessories words in Ojibwe. Please use the word bank below to solve the puzzle. Fill in the blanks with the letters of the Ojibwe word for the items in the pictures. Some of the letters have been filled in to help you. Enjoy!

Word Bank:

mikizinan                                            chipzowin                     pabgwayaan miiknot                         midaasan                       michigodenh

Shirt:__ __ b __ __ __ y__ __ n                                                               

Pants:__ __ __ k __ __ t

Shoes: m __ k __z__ __ __ n

Socks: __ __ d __ __ s __ __

Dress: m __ c __ __ g __ __ __ n __

Belt: __ h __ p __ __ w __ n                                              

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